rootkit cybrary

Rootkit

A Rootkit is a hacking program or collection of programs that give a threat actor remote access to and control over a computing device. While there have been legitimate uses …

cyber threat hunting

Threat Hunting

Threat Hunting is proactive hunting or searching through networks, endpoints, and datasets to find malicious, suspicious, or risky activity, patterns, or files that evaded existing detection tools. This is different …

third party risk management

Third-Party Risk Management (TPRM)

Third-Party Risk Management (TPRM) is the process of identifying, assessing, and controlling risks presented throughout the lifecycle of your relationships with third parties. This oftentimes starts during procurement and extends …

byod cybrary

BYOD

BYOD, also known as Bring Your Own Device, is a common practice of allowing employee-owned devices to connect to business networks. Smartphones are the most common example, but employees also …

data purging cybrary

Data Sanitization

Data Sanitization is the process of permanently and irreversibly destroying data on a storage device in a deliberate manner, often for compliance or cybersecurity purposes. After data sanitization, a storage …

aI

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to human-like intelligence presented by a computer, robot, or other machines. AI mimics human learning by building iterative learning capabilities into a computer.  AI machines learn …

hadoop

Hadoop

Hadoop is a software platform that makes it possible for users to manage large amounts of data. Hadoop processes extensive amounts of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. Some examples of data …

user behavior analytics

User Behavior Analytics (UBA)

User Behavior Analytics (UBA) is the tracking, collecting, and assessment of user data and activities using monitoring systems. UBA examine archived data from network and authentication logs collected and stored …

rfc 1918 cybrary term

RFC 1918

RFC 1918, also known as Request for Comment 1918, is the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) record on methods of assigning private IP addresses on TCP/IP networks. RFC 1918 outlines the usable private …

nft cyber term

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) are unique, easily verifiable digital assets that can represent items such as GIFs, images, videos, music albums, and more. Anything that exists online can be purchased as an …

leakware cybrary

Leakware

Leakware, also known as Doxware, is a new more potent, and dangerous form of ransomware. When a ransomware Attack containing Leakware occurs, the attacker threatens to publicize personal data (confidentiality …

packet cybrary term

Packet

A Packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet or any other packet-switched network. TCP packets, passed over TCP/IP networks …

ping of death

Ping of Death (PoD)

A Ping of Death (PoD) is a type of Denial of Service (DoS) attack that deliberately sends IP packets larger than the 65,536 bytes allowed by the IP protocol. One of …

common vulnerabilities exposures cve

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE)

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) is a list of computer security flaws ranked on critical measures to aid individuals and companies with assessing the risk posed by the vulnerability or exposure …

real user monitoring rum

Real User Monitoring (RUM)

Real User Monitoring (RUM) is a form of performance monitoring that captures and analyzes user activity and transacations on a website or application. It’s also known as real user measurement, …

container cybrary

Container

Before we get into what a container is, we need you to understand the difference between today’s term ‘Container’ and the previous term CyberHoot published ‘Hypervisor‘. Knowing the difference between …

xss cybrary term

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is an attack vector where hackers inject malicious code into a vulnerable web application. XSS differs from other web attack vectors in that it does not directly …

hypervisor

Hypervisor

A Hypervisor, also known as a Virtual Machine Monitor or VMM, is software that creates and manages virtual machines (VMs). A hypervisor allows a computer to maintain many guest VMs …

csrf cybrary

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF), also known as XSRF, is an attack method that fools a web browser into performing unwanted actions in a user application. Similar to Phishing Attacks, CSRFs …

pci-dss cybrary

PCI-DSS

PCI-DSS (Payment Card Industry-Data Security Standard) is a set of requirements intended to ensure that all companies that process, store, or transmit credit card information manage it safely and in …

ietf cybrary

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

The IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) is the organization that defines standard Internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP. The IETF is a community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with …

dns cybrary

Domain Name System (DNS)

A Domain Name System (DNS) is essentially the ‘phonebook’ of the Internet. DNS is an elaborate, fault-tolerant way of connecting people to resources online.  While it is quite complex, this …

spf cybrary

Sender Policy Framework (SPF)

Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is an anti-spam tool where email domains of the senders can be authenticated. SPF works hand-in-hand with DKIM and DMARC to help authenticate email messages to …

DKIM

DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail) is an email authentication tool that verifies messages are sent from a legitimate user’s email address. It’s designed to prevent email forgery and spoofing; essentially phishing. …

dmarc cybrary

DMARC

DMARC which stands for Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance is an email security protocol. When enabled, your email domain is protected from spoofing by hackers.  DMARC sets up an …

Non-Public Personal Information (NPPI)

Non-Public Personal Information (NPPI) is personal and private information that’s provided by a consumer to some entity for their use. This information includes  the following examples: Name, address, income, social …

anti censorship

Anti-Censorship

Anti-Censorship are methods to combat censorship – for example, preventing search results from being blocked or interfered with.  The growth of online platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, etc.) raises important questions …

GUI Desktop Environments

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

A Graphical User Interface (GUI), often pronounced ‘gooey’, is a user interface that includes graphical elements, such as windows, icons, and buttons. The term was created in the 1970s to distinguish graphical interfaces from text-based …

ssd drive

Solid State Drive (SSD)

A Solid State Drive (SSD) is a type of storage device that supports reading and writing data and stores the data in a permanent state even without a power source …

Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things (IoT) is any device or machine that has the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. IoT is essentially any …

zoom bombing coronavirus hackers

Zoom Bombing

Zoom Bombing is where an unauthorized person enters your Zoom video conference to cause disruptions or to gain sensitive information. Many companies and schools have begun using video conferencing extensively …

Gateway

A Gateway is a hardware device that sits between two networks, acting as a “gate”. An example of a gateway is a router, firewall, server, or anything that allows traffic …

Elliptic Curve Cryptography

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a public key encryption method that is based on elliptic curve theory that is used to create faster, smaller, and more efficient cryptographic keys. Historically, …

White Box Testing

White Box Testing is a form of penetration testing  which tests internal structures of an application, as opposed to the applications functionality (also known as Black Box Testing). Programming skills …

Fragment Overlap Attack

A Fragment Overlap Attack, also known as an IP Fragmentation Attack, is an attack that is based on how the Internet Protocol (IP) requires data to be transmitted and processed. …

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

An Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a cloud based service that helps companies build and manage their data as they grow, paying for the storage and server space that …

Steganography

Steganography (pronounced: steh·guh·naa·gruh·fee) is the technique of hiding data secretly within an ordinary, non-secret, file or message in order to avoid detection. The use of steganography can be combined with …

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Software as a Service (SaaS) is a cloud-based service where instead of downloading software to your desktop PC or business network to run and update, you instead access an application …

Human-Machine Interface (HMI)

Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is the hardware or software through which an operator interacts with a controller. An HMI can range from a physical control panel with buttons and indicator lights …

Test Oracle

A Test Oracle is a mechanism for determining whether the program has passed or failed a test. The use of test oracles involves comparing the output of the system under …

Black Box Testing

Black Box Testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal software structures (which is known as White Box Testing). …

Near Field Communications (NFC)

Near Field Communications (NFC) is a short-range wireless technology that enables simple and secure communication between electronic devices. It may be used on its own or in combination with other …

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a system used to track objects, people, or animals using tags that respond to radio waves. RFID tags are integrated circuits that include a small …

Dynamic Code Analysis

Dynamic Code Analysis is a method used to analyze an application during its execution. This Dynamic Code Analysis process is often broken up into these steps: Preparing input data; Running …

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is essentially a telephone connection over the Internet. The data is sent digitally, using the Internet Protocol (IP) instead of analog telephone lines. This allows people …

Content Delivery Network (CDN)

A Content Delivery Network (CDN) is a geographically distributed group of servers that work together to provide fast delivery of Internet content. A CDN allows for the fast transfer of …

Application Fuzzing

Application Fuzzing, originally developed by Barton Miller at the University of Wisconsin in 1989, is a testing method used to discover coding errors and security loopholes in software, operating systems …